ARDL Rubber Training – Intermediate to Advanced Compounding and Testing of Rubber


Day 1

1.  8:30 – 8:45 a.m. – Introduction to Compounding
    a.  Basic Ingredients in Rubber Compounds
    b.  Rubber Formulation

2.  8:45 a.m.- 12:00 p.m. – Elastomer / Rubber Chemistry
    a.  8:45 – 10:15 a.m. – Polymer Overview
       i.  Polymerization and Polymer Manufacture – Major Polymerization Methods
       ii.  Polymer Terminology and ASTM Polymer Nomenclature
       iii.  Distinct Regions Over Temperature Range–Glassy, Tg, Rubbery, Flow
       iv.  Viscoelastic Curves–Elastic Modulus, Viscous Modulus, Tan Delta
       v.   Time-Temperature Superposition Theory
      vi.  Viscoelastic Properties
      vii.  Chemical Structural Features that Affect Tg
      viii.  10:15 – 10:30 a.m. – Break
    b.  10:30 a.m. – 1:30 p.m. – Common Elastomers
       i.  NR: IR, Cis-1,3-polyisoprene Rubber
       ii.  SBR: Styrene Butadiene Rubber
       iii.  BR: Butadiene Rubber
       iv.  EPDM: Ethylene Propylene Diene Rubber
       v.  IIR: Butyl Rubber, CIIR: Chlorobutyl Rubber, BIIR: Bromobutyl Rubber
       vi.  Nitrile Rubbers: NBR, HNBR, XNBR
       vii.  CR: Neoprene Polychloroprene Rubber
       viii.  CSM: Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber
       ix.  ECO: Epichlorohydrin Rubber
       x.  ACM: Polyacrylic Rubber
       xi.  12:00 – 1:00 p.m. – Lunch
       xii.  Silicone Rubber
       xiii. AEM: Ethylene-acrylic Rubber
       xiv.  FKM: Fluorocarbon Rubber
       xv.  TPE: Thermoplastic Elastomers
       xvi.  AU/EU/TPU Urethanes
       xvii.  Comparison of Elastomers Properties

3.  1:30 – 2:45 p.m. – Fillers and Reinforcement
    a.  1:30 – 1:45 p.m. – Introduction to Fillers
       i.  Filler Effects in Rubber
       ii.  Particle Size
       iii. Particle Shape
       iv. Surface Area
       v. Surface Activity
    b. 1:45 – 2:45 p.m. – Mineral Fillers
       i. Types of Mineral Fillers
       ii. Chemistry of Fillers
       iii. Processing of Natural Mineral Fillers
       iv. Reinforcing Properties of Fillers in Rubber
       v. Mineral Filler Typical Properties (R. T. Vanderbilt Chart)
       vi. Surface Activity and Surface Treatments
       vii. Clay
       viii. Calcium Carbonate
       ix. Silicas
       x. Silica – Carbon Black Comparisons
       xi. Talc
       xii. Titanium Dioxide
       xiii. Diatomaceous Earth
       xiv. Reinforcing Resins
       xv. Filler Comparison in Rubber Compounds
       xvi.  Break 2:45 – 3:00 p.m.
    c.  3:00 – 3:45 p.m. – Carbon Black
       i.  History of Carbon Black
       ii.  Manufacture – Oil Furnace, Thermal
       iii.  Carbon Black Particles – Aggregates and Agglomerates
       iv.  Carbon Black and Rubber Properties
       v.  Carbon Black Definitions
       vi.  ASTM Carbon Black Classification
       vii.  Structure and Surface Area
       viii.  Carbon Black Tests
       ix.  Carbon Black Grades and Properties
       x.  Carbon Black Loading for Hardness
       xi.  Rubber Mixing with Carbon Black
       xii.  Carbon Black Dispersion

4.  3:45 – 4:30 p.m. – Plasticizers, Petroleum Process Oils
    a.  Petroleum Process Oils
       i.  Introduction
       ii.  Oil Composition
       iii.  Refining Process
       iv. Typical Tests for Oils
       v.  ASTM Petroleum Oil Characteristics
       vi.  Oil Effects on Compound Tg
       vii.  Properties of Process Oils
       viii.  Oil Effects on Rubber Properties
       ix.  Compatibility of Oil with Rubber
       x.  Restrictions on Aromatic Oil
       xi.  Substitutes for Aromatic Oil
       xii.  ASTM Reference Oils and Fluids


Day 2

Section 4 Plasticizers – Continued, 8:30 – 9:30 a.m.
    b.  Non-Petroleum Plasticizers
       i.  Selection of Plasticizers
       ii.  Rubber Compatibility (HallStar chart)
       iii.  Comparison of Plasticizers
       iv.  Adipates
       v.  Azelates
       vi.  Benzoates
       vii.  Mono-esters
       viii.  Phosphate Esters
       ix.  Phthalates
       x.  Polymeric Polyesters
       xi.  Sebecates
       xii.  Trimellitates
       xiii.  Epoxidized
       xiv.  Tallates
       xv.  Miscellaneous
    c.   Process Aids
       i.  How Process Additives Work
       ii.  Types of Process Aids
       iii.  Fatty Acid Derivatives
       iv.  Hydrocarbon and Coumarone-Indene Resins
       v.  Novolak Phenolic Resins
       vi.  Peptizers
       vii.  Pine-Based Chemicals
       viii.  Organosilicones
       ix.  Oxidized Asphalt and Coal Tar Products
       x.  Waxes
       xi.  Tackifier Performance

5.  9:30 – 10:30 a.m. – Antidegradants
    a.  Oxidation and Antioxidant Chemistry
    b.  Ozonolysis and Antiozonant Chemistry
    c.  Antidegradant Applications
    d.  Types of Antioxidants
    e.  Types of Antiozonants
    f. Waxes
    g.  Persistence of Antidegradants
    h.  Antidegradant Performance Comparison
    i.  Break 10:30 – 10:45 a.m.

6.  10:45 a.m. – 2:45 p.m. – Vulcanization
    a.  10:45 – 12:00 a.m. – Sulfur Cure Vulcanization
        i.  Vulcanization Introduction
        ii.  Sulfur
       iii.  Sulfur Donors
       iv.  Accelerator Selection
       v.  Sulfur and Accelerator Cure Mechanism
       vi.  Accelerator Classes – Cure Rate Vs. Time to Scorch
       vii.  Accelerator Types
            1.  Amines and Aldehyde Amines
            2.  Dithiocarbamates
            3.  Dithiophosphates
            4.  Guanidines
            5.  Sulfenamides and Sulfenimimdes
            6.  Thiazoles
            7.  Thioureas
            8.  Thiurams
            9.  Xanthantes
           10.  Miscellaneous Accelerators
       viii.  Activators for Sulfur Cure Systems
            1. Zinc Oxide
            2. Zinc Fatty Acids
            3. Fatty Acids
            4. Miscellaneous Activators
       ix. Pre-Vulcanization Inhibitors
       x. Retarders
       xi. Lunch 12:00 – 1:00 p.m.
       xii. 1:00 – 1:45 p.m. – Sulfur Cure Vulcanization Continued
       xiii.  Vulcanization Effects on Rubber Properties
            1. Crosslink Density
            2. Types of Sulfur Cure Systems
            3.  Crosslink Type
            4.  Accelerator Effects on Crosslink Type
            5.  Non-curative Compound Ingredients Effects on Vulcanization
       xiv.  Solubility Levels of Accelerators in Various Polymers
       xv.  Vulcanization Tests
    b.  1:45 – 2:30 p.m. – Regulatory Issues with Curatives
       i.  ETU and Replacements,
       ii.  Guanadine and Replacements
       iii.  Nitrosamines and Accelerators
       iv.  Equal Molar Replacement of Accelerators
       v.  Non-nitrosamine Cure Systems
       vi.  Break 2:30 – 2:45 p.m.
    c.  2:45 – 3:15 p.m. – Non-sulfur Cure Systems
       i.  Resol Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Cure
       ii.  Metallic Oxide Cure
       iii.  P-Quinonedioxime Cure
       iv.  Peroxide Cure
            1.  Introduction
            2.  Peroxides and Co-agents
            3.  Compounding Ingredients to Avoid with Peroxide Cures
       v.  Diamine Cure
       vi.  Bisphenol Cure

7.  3:15 p.m. – 4:30 p.m. – Adhesion
    a.   Adhesion to Brass and Brass Coated Steel
    b.  Adhesion to Other Metals
    c.  Adhesion to Textiles


Day 3

8.  8:30 – 8:45 a.m. – Sponge Rubber and Foaming Agents
    a.  Types of Sponge Rubber
    b.  Open and Closed Sponge
    c.  Types of Blowing Agents
    d.  Properties that Affect Foaming Agents
    e.  Activators for Foaming Agents

9.  8:45 – 9:00 a.m. – Non-Flammable Compounding and Flame Retardants
    a.  Rubber Types and Flammability
    b.  Types of Flame Retardants
    c.  Mixing with Flame Retardants
    d.  Flammability Tests

10.  9:00 – 9:30 a.m. – Compound Design, Physical Testing and Review of ASTM D2000
    a.  Questions to Ask When Developing a New Rubber Compound
    b.  Some Common Compound Testing
    c.  ASTM D2000 Line Call Out

11.  9:30 – 9:45 a.m. – Analytical Chemical Testing
    a.  TGA
    b.  FTIR
    c.  Chemical Analysis, ASTM D297
    d.  Pyrolysis GC/MS
    e.  Thin Layer Chromatography
    f.  DSC
    g.  Formulation Reconstruction

12.  9:45 – 10:00 a.m. – Warehouse Storage of Rubber Chemicals
    a.  Flammable and Combustible Liquids
    b.  Flammable Solids
    c.  Poisons (Toxins)
    d.  Water Reactive
    e.  Chemicals that Degrade Other Chemicals
    f.  Organic Peroxides

13.  10:00 – 10:15 a.m. – Useful References – Bonnie Stuck, ARDL
    a.  References
    b.  Break 10:15 – 10:30 a.m.

14.  10:30am – 11:45 a.m. – Processing
    a.  Types of Mixers
    b.  Rotor Designs
    c.  1 Pass versus 2 Pass Mixing
    d.  Conventional versus Upside Down Mixing
    e.  Batch Sizing
    f.  Common Polymer Drop Temperatures
    g.  Common Mixing Problems and Fixes
    h.  Process and Quality Testing
    i.  Molding
    j.  Extrusion
    k.  Calendering
    l.  Autoclave Steam Curing

15.  12:00 – 1:00 p.m. Lunch

16.  1:00 – 4:30 p.m. Tour ARDL (3 buildings)

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