Day 1

Section 1:  8:30 – 8:45 a.m. – Introduction to Compounding
     a. Basic Ingredients in Rubber Compounds
     b. Rubber Formulation

Section 2:  8:45 a.m.- 12:00 p.m. – Elastomer / Rubber Chemistry
     a. 8:45 – 10:15 a.m. – Polymer Overview
          i. Polymerization and Polymer Manufacture – Major Polymerization Methods
          ii. Polymer Terminology and ASTM Polymer Nomenclature
          iii. Distinct Regions Over Temperature Range–Glassy, Tg, Rubbery, Flow
          iv. Viscoelastic Curves–Elastic Modulus, Viscous Modulus, Tan Delta
          v. Time-Temperature Superposition Theory
          vi. Viscoelastic Properties
          vii. Chemical Structural Features that Affect Tg
          viii. 10:15 – 10:30 a.m. – Break
     b. 10:30 a.m. – 1:30 p.m. – Common Elastomers
          i. NR: IR, Cis-1,3-polyisoprene Rubber
          ii. SBR: Styrene Butadiene Rubber
          iii. BR: Butadiene Rubber
          iv. EPDM: Ethylene Propylene Diene Rubber
          v. IIR: Butyl Rubber, CIIR: Chlorobutyl Rubber, BIIR: Bromobutyl Rubber
          vi. Nitrile Rubbers: NBR, HNBR, XNBR
          vii. CR: Neoprene Polychloroprene Rubber
          viii. CSM: Chlorosulfonated Polyethylene Rubber
          ix. ECO: Epichlorohydrin Rubber
          x. ACM: Polyacrylic Rubber
          xi. 12:00 – 1:00 p.m. – Lunch
          xii. Silicone Rubber
          xiii. AEM: Ethylene-acrylic Rubber
          xiv. FKM: Fluorocarbon Rubber
          xv. TPE: Thermoplastic Elastomers
         xvi. AU/EU/TPU Urethanes
        xvii. Comparison of Elastomers Properties

Section 3: 1:30 – 2:45 p.m. – Fillers and Reinforcement
     a. 1:30 – 1:45 p.m. – Introduction to Fillers
          i. Filler Effects in Rubber
          ii. Particle Size
          iii. Particle Shape
          iv. Surface Area
          v. Surface Activity
     b. 1:45 – 2:45 p.m. – Mineral Fillers
          i. Types of Mineral Fillers
          ii. Chemistry of Fillers
          iii. Processing of Natural Mineral Fillers
          iv. Reinforcing Properties of Fillers in Rubber
          v. Mineral Filler Typical Properties (R. T. Vanderbilt Chart)
          vi. Surface Activity and Surface Treatments
          vii. Clay
          viii. Calcium Carbonate
          ix. Silicas
          x. Silica – Carbon Black Comparisons
          xi. Talc
          xii. Titanium Dioxide
          xiii. Diatomaceous Earth
          xiv. Reinforcing Resins
          xv. Filler Comparison in Rubber Compounds
          xvi. Break 2:45 – 3:00 p.m.
    c. 3:00 – 3:45 p.m. – Carbon Black
         i. History of Carbon Black
         ii. Manufacture – Oil Furnace, Thermal
         iii. Carbon Black Particles – Aggregates and Agglomerates
         iv. Carbon Black and Rubber Properties
         v. Carbon Black Definitions
         vi. ASTM Carbon Black Classification
         vii. Structure and Surface Area
         viii. Carbon Black Tests
         ix. Carbon Black Grades and Properties
         x. Carbon Black Loading for Hardness
        xi. Rubber Mixing with Carbon Black
        xii. Carbon Black Dispersion

Section 4:  3:45 – 4:30 p.m. – Plasticizers, Petroleum Process Oils
     a. Petroleum Process Oils
         i. Introduction
         ii. Oil Composition
         iii. Refining Process
        iv. Typical Tests for Oils
        v. ASTM Petroleum Oil Characteristics
        vi. Oil Effects on Compound Tg
        vii. Properties of Process Oils
        viii. Oil Effects on Rubber Properties
        ix. Compatibility of Oil with Rubber
       x. Restrictions on Aromatic Oil
       xi. Substitutes for Aromatic Oil
       xii. ASTM Reference Oils and Fluids

Day 2

Section 4:   Plasticizers, Petroleum Process Oils (Continued) 8:30 – 9:30 a.m.
     b. Non-Petroleum Plasticizers
            i. Selection of Plasticizers
            ii. Rubber Compatibility (HallStar chart)
            iii. Comparison of Plasticizers
            iv. Adipates
            v. Azelates
            vi. Benzoates
           vii. Mono-esters
           viii. Phosphate Esters
           ix. Phthalates
           x. Polymeric Polyesters
           xi. Sebecates
          xii. Trimellitates
          xiii. Epoxidized
          xiv. Tallates
          xv. Miscellaneous
     c. Process Aids
           i. How Process Additives Work
           ii. Types of Process Aids
           iii. Fatty Acid Derivatives
            iv. Hydrocarbon and Coumarone-Indene Resins
            v. Novolak Phenolic Resins
           vi. Peptizers
          vii. Pine-Based Chemicals
          viii. Organosilicones
          ix. Oxidized Asphalt and Coal Tar Products
          x. Waxes
          xi. Tackifier Performance

Section 5: 9:30 – 10:30 a.m. – Antidegradants
     a. Oxidation and Antioxidant Chemistry
     b. Ozonolysis and Antiozonant Chemistry
     c. Antidegradant Applications
     d. Types of Antioxidants
     e. Types of Antiozonants
     f. Waxes
     g. Persistence of Antidegradants
     h. Antidegradant Performance Comparison
     i. Break 10:30 – 10:45 a.m.

Section 6:  10:45 a.m. – 2:45 p.m. – Vulcanization
     a. 10:45 – 12:00 a.m. – Sulfur Cure Vulcanization
          i. Vulcanization Introduction
          ii. Sulfur
          iii. Sulfur Donors
          iv. Accelerator Selection
          v. Sulfur and Accelerator Cure Mechanism
          vi. Accelerator Classes – Cure Rate Vs. Time to Scorch
          vii. Accelerator Types
                   1. Amines and Aldehyde Amines
                   2. Dithiocarbamates
                   3. Dithiophosphates
                   4. Guanidines
                   5. Sulfenamides and Sulfenimimdes
                   6. Thiazoles
                   7. Thioureas
                   8. Thiurams
                   9. Xanthantes
                   10. Miscellaneous Accelerators
         viii. Activators for Sulfur Cure Systems
                   1. Zinc Oxide
                   2. Zinc Fatty Acids
                   3. Fatty Acids
                   4. Miscellaneous Activators
         ix. Pre-Vulcanization Inhibitors
         x. Retarders
         xi. Lunch 12:00 – 1:00 p.m.
         xii. 1:00 – 1:45 p.m. – Sulfur Cure Vulcanization Continued
         xiii.  Vulcanization Effects on Rubber Properties
                   1. Crosslink Density
                   2. Types of Sulfur Cure Systems
                   3. Crosslink Type
                   4. Accelerator Effects on Crosslink Type
                   5. Non-curative Compound Ingredients Effects on Vulcanization
         xiv. Solubility Levels of Accelerators in Various Polymers
         xv. Vulcanization Tests
    b. 1:45 – 2:30 p.m. – Regulatory Issues with Curatives
         i. ETU and Replacements,
         ii. Guanadine and Replacements
         iii. Nitrosamines and Accelerators
         v. Equal Molar Replacement of Accelerators
         v. Non-nitrosamine Cure Systems
         vi. Break 2:30 – 2:45 p.m.
    c. 2:45 – 3:15 p.m. – Non-sulfur Cure Systems
         i. Resol Phenol-Formaldehyde Resin Cure
         ii. Metallic Oxide Cure
         iii. P-Quinonedioxime Cure
         iv. Peroxide Cure
                   1. Introduction
                   2. Peroxides and Co-agents
                   3. Compounding Ingredients to Avoid with Peroxide Cures
         v. Diamine Cure
         vi. Bisphenol Cure

Section 7: 3:15 p.m. – 4:30 p.m. – Adhesion
    a. Adhesion to Brass and Brass Coated Steel
    b. Adhesion to Other Metals
    c. Adhesion to Textiles

Day 3

Section 8: 8:30 – 8:45 a.m. – Sponge Rubber and Foaming Agents
    a. Types of Sponge Rubber
    b. Open and Closed Sponge
    c. Types of Blowing Agents
    d. Properties that Affect Foaming Agents
    e. Activators for Foaming Agents

Section 9: 8:45 – 9:00 a.m. – Non-Flammable Compounding and Flame Retardants
    a. Rubber Types and Flammability
    b. Types of Flame Retardants
    c. Mixing with Flame Retardants
    d. Flammability Tests

Section 10: 9:00 – 9:30 a.m. – Compound Design, Physical Testing and Review of ASTM D2000
    a. Questions to Ask When Developing a New Rubber Compound
    b. Some Common Compound Testing
    c. ASTM D2000 Line Call Out

Section 11: 9:30 – 9:45 a.m. – Analytical Chemical Testing
    a. TGA
    b. FTIR
    c. Chemical Analysis, ASTM D297
    d. Pyrolysis GC/MS
    e. Thin Layer Chromatography
    f. DSC
    g. Formulation Reconstruction

Section 12: 9:45 – 10:00 a.m. – Warehouse Storage of Rubber Chemicals
    a. Flammable and Combustible Liquids
    b. Flammable Solids
    c. Poisons (Toxins)
    d. Water Reactive
    e. Chemicals that Degrade Other Chemicals
    f. Organic Peroxides

Section 13: 10:00 – 10:15 a.m. – Useful References – Bonnie Stuck, ARDL
    a. References
    b. Break 10:15 – 10:30 a.m.

Section 14: 10:30am – 11:45 a.m. – Processing
    a. Types of Mixers
    b. Rotor Designs
    c. 1 Pass versus 2 Pass Mixing
    d. Conventional versus Upside Down Mixing
    e. Batch Sizing
    f. Common Polymer Drop Temperatures
    g. Common Mixing Problems and Fixes
    h. Process and Quality Testing
    i. Molding
    j. Extrusion
    k. Calendering
    l. Autoclave Steam Curing

Section 15: 12:00 – 1:00 p.m. Lunch

Section 16: 1:00 – 4:30 p.m. – ARDL Tour (3 buildings)

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